At the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert received the first mechanical keyless wind watches, making pocket watches and watch fobs popular for both men and women until the mid 20th century.
Even after watch keys were no longer necessary for winding watches, decorative fobs remained popular as jewelry for women and men in the Victorian and Edwardian era.
The excavation of ancient sites in Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Egypt in the mid 1700s influenced art, jewelry and fashion from Italy to England. Carved jasper, onyx, carnelian and shell became popular with the revival of Classical themes. When Napoleon placed ancient Roman cameos on his 1804 coronation crown, he began a trend that has continued to the present day.
Greek, Roman, and Etruscan symbols including serpents, crescents, carved stone signets and mythological gods appeared in jewelry from 1830 - 1920s.
The popularization of photography by the 1880s and 90s resulted in the addition of keepsake photos to watch fobs.
And of course the delight of miniaturization was another wonderful trend - resulting in tiny treasures like working compasses.